Bio-fertilizers are ready to use live formulates of such beneficial micro-organisms which on application to seed, root or soil mobilize the availability of nutrients by their biological activity in particular, and help build up the micro-flora and in turn the soil health in general. Continue reading “BIO Fertilizers”
The carbon cycle is the exchange of carbon between the atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial biosphere and geological deposits. Continue reading “Soil and carbon cycle”
Soil is responsible for 90% of food production and 33% of it already dis-graded. Time to take stringent steps! via FAO Continue reading “Soil is responsible for 90% of food production.”
The Causal organism: Plasmopara Viticola
-The casual fungus attacks all green parts of the vine, particularly the leaves. Depending on incubation period and leaf age, lesions are yellowish and oily or angular, yellow to reddish brown, and limited by the vine.
-Sporulation of the fungus- a delicate, dense, white, cottony growth occurs on the lower leaf surface. Leaf infection is most impotent as a source of inoculums for berry infection and as over wintering inoculums. Severely infected leaves generally drop. Such defoliation reduces of over wintering buds.
-Infected shoot tips thicken, curl, and become white with sporulation; they eventually turn brown and die.
-The young berries are highly susceptible, appearing grayish when infected (gray rot) and covered0 with a downy felt of fungus sporulation.
-Plasmopara Viticola over winters mainly as oospores in fallen leaves, although it can survive as mycelium in buds and in persistent leaves.
– Sporangiophores and sporangia are produced only through the stomata on the over leaf surface, a process that requires 95-100% RH. And at least 4hr.of darkness.
– The optimal temperature for sporulation is 18-22C.
The disease caused minor damage in most grape-growing areas of the world. Uncontrolled powdery mildew reduces vine growth and yield and affects quality and winter hardiness. Continue reading “Powdery mildew”
Magnesium is needed for many processes including transfer of energy and protein synthesis and cell structure. It is particularly important for chlorophyll production; as much as 20-25% of the plant’s total Mg is localized in the chloroplasts. Continue reading “Importance of Magnesium”
Host:-Larvae of this insect feed on wild and cultivated grapes.
Symptoms: This borer injures plants by feeding extensively on the root system. Because of its location, initial damage may be difficult to detect or diagnose until the plants become severely damaged. Tunnels will increase in size as the larvae grow. Grape root borer Continue reading “Grape Root Borer – Vitacea polistiformes”