BIO Fertilizers

Bio-fertilizers are ready to use live formulates of such beneficial micro-organisms which on application to seed, root or soil mobilize the availability of nutrients by their biological activity in particular, and help build up the micro-flora and in turn the soil health in general. Continue reading “BIO Fertilizers”

Downy Mildew

The Causal organism: Plasmopara Viticola

Symptoms:
-The casual fungus attacks all green parts of the vine, particularly the leaves. Depending on incubation period and leaf age, lesions are yellowish and oily or angular, yellow to reddish brown, and limited by the vine.
-Sporulation of the fungus- a delicate, dense, white, cottony growth occurs on the lower leaf surface. Leaf infection is most impotent as a source of inoculums for berry infection and as over wintering inoculums. Severely infected leaves generally drop. Such defoliation reduces of over wintering buds.
-Infected shoot tips thicken, curl, and become white with sporulation; they eventually turn brown and die.
-The young berries are highly susceptible, appearing grayish when infected (gray rot) and covered0 with a downy felt of fungus sporulation.

Disease Cycle:
-Plasmopara Viticola over winters mainly as oospores in fallen leaves, although it can survive as mycelium in buds and in persistent leaves.
– Sporangiophores and sporangia are produced only through the stomata on the over leaf surface, a process that requires 95-100% RH. And at least 4hr.of darkness.
– The optimal temperature for sporulation is 18-22C.